The European Journal of Comparative Economics

ISSN: 1824-2979

EJCE Year: 2013, August. Volume: 10 - Issue: 2

Regulation of Pharmacists: A Comparative Law and Economics Analysis

by Niels J. Philipsen

Start page: 225 - End page: 241

Keywords: Licensing; Entry barriers; Conduct regulation; Price regulation; Pharmacists

Jel code: K21; K32; L44; L51



This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of regulation of pharmacists that are found today in the EU (and to some extent Canada, China and the US) and to investigate whether there is an economic rationale for these rules. Despite the rather strict regulatory frameworks found in all of these jurisdictions, in various countries there is a discussion on how to improve or increase the level of pharmaceutical care. The author suggests in that respect that changes in the reimbursement system may provide a better solution than stricter entry or conduct requirements.

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